Vitamin A


Vitamin A, also known as retinol, is a fat-soluble vitamin and is an essential nutrient for humans. It is taken purely as vitamin A from foods of animal origin but also as provitamin A (β-carotene or other carotenoids) from foods of plant origin. THE

Vitamin A is expressed in retinol equivalents (RE):

Vitamin A plays a key role in maintaining healthy eyesight but also in the growth-integrity of cells in the various tissues of the body.


  • Important sources of vitamin A are liver, cod liver oil, egg yolk, butter, fortified margarine, fatty fish, dairy products.
  • Important sources of β-carotene are fruits and vegetables such as sweet potatoes, carrots, pumpkin, green leafy vegetables, sweet red pepper, mango, melon, etc.


According to the European Food Safety Authority (EFSA), population intake reference values ​​(PRIs) for vitamin A vary by group

population as follows:

Infants (7-11 months) and children: 250-750 μg RE per day

Adults: 750 μg RE per day for men and 650 μg RE per day for women

Pregnant & lactating women: 700 and 1300 μg RE per day respectively

Some more Foods

Foods high in vitamin A and carotene

IU food for every 100 gr

Red chili peppers (fresh) 21,000, Red chili peppers (dried) 16,000 / Propolis leaves 77,000 / Broccoli (blossom) 3,000 / Carrots (mashed) 11,000 / Turnip leaves 7,500 / Cabbage 6,000 / Rake 3,500 / Beans 700 / Apricots 2,700 / Cherries 1,000 / Peaches 1,900 / Butter 3,500 / Egg yolks 3,800 / Melon 4,000 / Mango 5,000 / Papaya 2,000 / Sweet potatoes 9,000 / Peas 3,000 / Cod liver oil 25,500 / Dietans 6,000 /

Symptoms of Deficiency

Lack of vitamins in the diet causes various diseases, while vitamin deficiency leads to hypovitaminosis. Vitamin A deficiency can have very serious consequences. It is usually accompanied by a lack of zinc and protein. An amount equal to the needs can be stored in the body for one year. This means that the symptoms of deficiency do not appear immediately. However, if the symptoms appear after a long period of taking the vitamin, they are very serious. An unbalanced diet is associated with the appearance of many pathological conditions, including abnormalities of the sense of sight. It has been shown that the lack of various nutrients from the daily diet can adversely affect the function of human vision.If the deficiency persists it can damage the cornea which can cause blindness. For this reason, vitamin A is also referred to as "axirophthol". Recent studies show that vitamin A derivatives play an important role in the differentiation of tissues after binding to the DNA of the cell nucleus. It can also inhibit bone growth or alter its shape and can lead to tooth decay. Another consequence is impotence. It affects the nervous and mental system and can lead to paralysis. There is also dryness and discontinuity in the skin layers (it is not the only indicator of vitamin A deficiency, since other nutrient deficiencies cause similar disorders),Metaplasia and keratinization of cells of the respiratory tract and other organs.

The information is purely informative and does not replace medical examinations, you also recommend a balanced diet