How the brain communicates with the gut affects mental health
Many times so far we have read about the central role of the intestine in regulating health, both physical and mental. In an earlier article, we looked at how the connection between the brain and the gut affects mental well-being and how gut bacteria are linked to even autism. The crucial role of the intestine is emphasized by both Hippocrates and Ancient Chinese Medicine and is also called the second brain in the body.
Below we present another relevant article by Biologist Ioannis - Alexandros Gambierakis as published on terrapapers.com. Our body is a holistic organism to which everything is connected.
The intestinal system, in addition to its known function in processing and absorbing nutrients, is innervated by forming a complex neural network. It is considered by scientists to be the body's second brain.
In Japan, before the advent of the West, if you asked people what the body's thinking area was, they would show you the wider oral region. The Japanese as well as other ancient civilizations as well as Hippocrates placed great emphasis on this area of the organism. Now, a new study is coming to upset the scientific data and to revise the whole perception of dichotomy that exists in terms of the functions of the body.
The organism is a holistic system. A system that works in a holistic way rather than as a Comprehensive Entity consisting of Engineering Services that perform functions. The intestinal nervous system thinks, feels, reacts and communicates to the brain. Although this seems unbelievable, the scientific community has managed to shed light on the connection and coherence that the brain has with the intestinal nervous system. This opens doors to new therapies, new ideas, new insights into how the organisation actually works. It seems that you are not as good as they want to be in the human body.
Everyone has experienced this unpleasant sensation in the abdomen when you come face to face in a dangerous situation or when stress levels rise vertically. Researchers in Zurich have shown for the first time that this instinctive feeling experienced in the Pacific when you come face to face with a dangerous event affects the way you react to the perception and feeling of fear. Although the brain is considered the center of perception of all the senses, there is a new aim in understanding how this basic instinctive sense created in the oral state affects perceptions and reactions to fear.
Life passes through our stomach
The very interesting finding here is that communication µ between these two systems. Is not autonomous. That is, the brain sends inputs and information to the intestinal neural network, and the brain receives inputs and information from the intestinal neural network. Central to this communication is the pneumogastric nerve, which is responsible for transmitting information in both directions - from the brain to the intestinal nervous system and other internal organs of the body (through neurotransmitters). the intestinal nervous system to the brain (via the oncogenic adductor nerve pathways).
In the study conducted by the researchers, they intervened in this one-sided communication by cutting off the supply nerve pathways. Thus, they created a system that operated in the same direction (information was now transmitted only from the brain to the intestinal nervous system, while in the opposite direction there was no transmission of information).
Examining the effect of this modification, they found that the brain was able to send signals to the oral region, but no longer received information from the oral region.
In the behavioral studies, the researchers observed a horrific fear in the group of pirates who had undergone this modification in the connections between the brain and the intestinal nervous system, in relation to wild-type animals. The study's lead author said the response to fear appears to be influenced by emotions sent by the intestinal nervous system to various areas of the brain.
However, the experimental animals that underwent this modification did not show complete lack of fear. In the dependence of fear (On a Form of Dependent Learning), the experimental animals were able to connect a neutral stimulus (specifically a sound) - to an unpleasant experience. In this case, it seems that the disruption of the connection between the intestinal nervous system and the brain does not seem to affect this Dependent Learning Form.
However, when the researchers exposed this group of experimental animals to a neutral experiment, they observed that it took a long period of time for the experimental animals to correlate the sound (neutral stimulus) with the neutral effect. Essentially, this group of pirate people was slow to learn the correlation between sound and negative experience. This finding is consistent with a new study that showed that stimulation of the pneumogastric nerve mentioned above affects the healing processes.
This observation can help a lot in the field of psychiatry, as he knew that people with anxiety disorder have an excessive response to fear and when they come in contact with neutral events. Thus, the activation and stimulation of the pneumogastric nerve can help patients to connect it to neutral stimuli in unpleasant situations. At this point he stressed that this methodology is applied to epilepsy and in some cases to depression.
Although it seems contradictory that while the subtle response to fear is reduced, in the Forms of Addictive Fear they saw that these experimental animals are slow to eliminate this Form of Dependent Fear when they come in contact with a neutral stimulus. The explanation for this contradiction seems to have to do with the fact that the dependent fear in relation to the outward fear mobilizes different neuro-signaling pathways.
This study showed for the first time that selective disruption of the connection µ between the brain and the intestinal nervous system. Can lead to changes in complex behavioral responses.
The intestinal nervous system therefore plays a central role in the response to fear. It is not only the brain that is responsible for the responses to fear, but it seems that a complex network is involved. How and which signaling and neurotransmitter pathways are involved requires further investigation.
What needs to be said is that the body acts as a whole in environmental stimuli. The complexity of the systems raises new questions in the treatment of diseases. New problematic people are emerging in the direction they should have aimed at counteracting diseases that to this day have been limited to one organ and one specific type of cell. It seems that psychiatric illnesses are not limited to disorders and damage to areas of the brain, but extend to other levels and organs of the body.
It is a proof that the system is unified and every effort to divide it fragment knowledge and inevitably leads to mistakes that cost patients' health.